When workers voluntarily take a job they demonstrate that they believe the job is the best alternative available to them – even when that job is unsafe and the pay is very low compared to wages in the United States. That’s why economists with political views as divergent as Paul Krugman and Walter Williams have both written in defense of sweatshops.
Sweatshop jobs are often far better than the vast majority of jobs in the countries where they are located.
Monday, September 28, 2020
Thursday, September 24, 2020
- Adverse selection: only extremely travel-inclined passengers purchased the tickets; and
- Moral Hazard: since the marginal cost of travel was zero, they used to fly to any destination where the marginal benefit was greater than zero.
Bottom Line: The passes ended up costing AA over ten times as much as they sold them for.
HT: Don Marron
Being a felon did not rule you out from being hired to work for my company. Instead, we used the box to see if the job applicant was truthful about their felony past. We did not hire those who (i) had a felony record and didn’t disclose it; or (ii) lied when filling out the explanation of the charges.
However, we did hire those who disclosed truthfully (except for certain crimes), and found them to be good employees.
Tuesday, September 15, 2020
A few years ago a friend advised me that if I wanted to know what was going on in the real world, I should read the business pages. Although my lifelong interest has been in the study of religion, I am always willing to expand my horizons; so I took the advice, vaguely fearful that I would have to cope with a new and baffling vocabulary. Instead I was surprised to discover that most of the concepts I ran across were quite familiar.
Expecting a terra incognita, I found myself instead in the land of déjà vu. The lexicon of The Wall Street Journal and the business sections of Time and Newsweek turned out to bear a striking resemblance to Genesis, the Epistle to the Romans, and Saint Augustine's City of God. Behind descriptions of market reforms, monetary policy, and the convolutions of the Dow, I gradually made out the pieces of a grand narrative about the inner meaning of human history, why things had gone wrong, and how to put them right. Theologians call these myths of origin, legends of the fall, and doctrines of sin and redemption. But here they were again, and in only thin disguise: chronicles about the creation of wealth, the seductive temptations of statism, captivity to faceless economic cycles, and, ultimately, salvation through the advent of free markets, with a small dose of ascetic belt tightening along the way, especially for the East Asian economies.
Monday, September 14, 2020
housing bubble. The price/earnings ratio is a measure of the value of a stock, and we see that when it goes above 20, we generally see subsequent declines. However, we have been above this value for the past decade.
DISCLAIMER: If I really knew, I wouldn't be teaching school.
Friday, September 11, 2020
China’s currency has climbed more than 5% from this year’s low in May, the best performance in Asia. A strong yuan is an obstacle when the nation’s economy is recovering from the coronavirus pandemic and confronted with escalating tensions with the U.S. because it could undermine the attractiveness of exports.
The yuan’s gain versus its trading partners’ currencies is smaller compared with its move against the dollar. The Bloomberg CFETS RMB Index Tracker, which measures the yuan versus 24 peers, has risen just 2.4% from a record low last year. The gauge currently stands at 92.95.
Monday, September 7, 2020
I fondly remember Mike as the rare student who cared not about grades, but rather about ideas and how to apply them. Generations of students will know him through the Chapter Four textbook story of how he (the CEO) designed a successful incentive pay scheme.
4.5 Tie Pay to Performance Measures That Reflect Effort
Measuring performance is a critical part of any organization, as the following story illustrates. In 1997, a 50-year-old chief operating officer (COO) with a bachelor’s degree in journalism and a law degree managed a consulting firm with 10 account executives. The COO was in charge of keeping clients happy and ensuring that the account executives were working in the best interests of the company. The COO earned a flat salary of $75,000.
After taking classes in human resources, economics, and accounting, the CEO recognized that the usual accounting profits were not motivating the COO to work harder. He sat down with his COO, and together they designed a new metric. All revenues counted toward the COO’s “profit” goal. But only the expenses that the COO controlled directly—like compensation and office expenses—were “charged” against his profit metric. All overhead items, like rent, were placed in another budget because the COO could not control them; that is, they were “fixed” with respect to his effort.
The CEO and the COO both agreed that, without much effort, the COO could earn4 $150,000 each quarter. But earning more would take extraordinary effort. To motivate the COO, they agreed on an incentive compensation scheme that paid the COO one-third of each dollar that the company earned above $150,000.
After making the change, the COO’s compensation jumped to $177,000— an increase of 136%—but the firm’s revenues also jumped from $720,000 to $1,251,000—an increase of 74%. A good economy certainly contributed to the increase, but the compensation plan also helped. Revenue increased because the COO pushed hard to make and exceed earnings goals and, for the first time, he worried about expenses. For example, he attempted to contain costs by asking why phone bills were so high.
Along with changing the COO’s compensation scheme, the CEO also moved to a system of incentive pay for the account representatives. This had equally dramatic effects on the account representatives—except for one employee who was going through a divorce. The incentive pay scheme did little to increase his marginal incentives because half of everything he earned went to his estranged wife. In other words, the marginal benefit of extra work for this employee was half as much as that of other employees, and he responded by working less hard.
Thursday, September 3, 2020
The Iowa Electronics Markets sell contracts that payoff $1 if a particular candidate is selected. The prices can be interpreted as probabilities if Price=Expected Payoff=Prob[win]*$1. Below, the implied probabilities seem to track the polls, which suggests that Biden has a big lead.
However, this educational betting market is thin (mostly students, only $40,000 or so). The much bigger betting markets in London has the election as much closer: Trump is trading at -120 (Prob[win]=54%) and Biden is trading at 110 (Prob[win]=47%). Here is a calculator for converting "American odds" to probabilities.
Here are three reasons why the polling may be different from the betting markets. The one that seems most plausible to me is, "Theory #3: People don’t trust polling after 2016." In 2016, Trump surprised the pollsters, and the betting markets, by pulling out a win.